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MaaS is in general a new concept, and the business models are still in development. There are challenges regarding the viability of the business models, and business-related aspects are one of the main topics addressed by scientific literature on MaaS.

In general, the following aspects are discussed:

  • The role of public vs private actors. MaaS may be market driven, controlled by a public actor, or a public-private collaboration.
  • Different types of MaaS Providers such as public and private actors, actors building MaaS around their own transport services, and more mode agnostic actors without their own services.
  • Cannibalism with respect to public transport. i.e., that other modes are used instead of public transport
  • How the different roles should be organised, e.g., the data integrator role, and the responsibilities of the roles.
  • The effects of MaaS on different part of the value network, e.g., that more customers for one actor also may imply more customers for others.